Iraq: An Urgent Call for Education Reforms to Ensure Learning for All Children and Boost Human Capital
Learning levels in Iraq are among the lowest in the Middle East & North Africa (MENA) region and are likely to decline even further because of the impact the COVID-19 pandemic has had on education service delivery, including prolonged school closures.
These low learning levels are putting the future of Iraqi children and the country at risk. A new World Bank report says that while, now more than ever, investments are needed in education to recover lost learning and turn crisis into opportunity, these investments must be accompanied by a comprehensive reform agenda that focuses the system on learning outcomes and builds a more resilient education system for all children.
The World Bank Group's new report, Building Forward Better to Ensure Learning for All Children in Iraq: An Education Reform Path, builds on key priorities in education recently identified in the Government of Iraq's White Paper and the World Bank Group's Addressing the Human Capital Crisis: A Public Expenditure Review for Human Development Sectors in Iraq report, and provides actionable reform recommendations to boost learning and skills.
Human capital is essential to achieve sustainable and inclusive economic growth. However, according to the World Bank's 2020 Human Capital Index (HCI), a child born in Iraq today will reach, on average, only 41% of their potential productivity when they grow up.
At the heart of Iraq's human capital crisis is a learning crisis, with far-reaching implications. Iraq's poor performance on the HCI is largely attributed to its low learning levels. COVID-19 has led to intermittent school closures across Iraq, impacting more than 11 million Iraqi students since February 2020. This report highlights that, with schools closed over 75% of the time and opportunities for remote learning limited and unequal, Iraqi children are facing another reduction of learning adjusted years of schooling. Effectively, students in Iraq are facing more than a "lost year" of learning.
Saroj Kumar Jha, World Bank Mashreq Regional Director, said:
"Iraq can use lessons learned from the current health crisis, turn recovery into opportunity, and "build forward better," to ensure it provides learning opportunities for all Iraqi children especially its poorest and most vulnerable children.
"The World Bank is ready to support Iraq in building a more equitable and resilient post-COVID-19 education system that ensures learning for all children and generates the dividends for faster and more inclusive growth".
The report Building Forward Better to Ensure Learning for All Children in Iraq: An Education Reform Path puts forward for discussion sector-wide reform recommendations, focusing on immediate crisis response as well as medium and long-term needs across six key strategic areas:
- Engaging in an Emergency Crisis response through the mitigation of immediate learning loss and prevention of further dropouts.
- Improving foundational skills to set a trajectory for learning through improved learning & teaching materials and strengthened teacher practices with a focus on learning for all children.
- Focusing on the most urgently needed investments, while ensuring better utilization of resources.
- Improving the governance of the education sector and promoting evidence based decision making.
- Developing and implementing an education sector strategy that focuses on learning and "building forward better".
- Aligning skills with labor market needs through targeted programs and reforms.
(Source: World Bank)
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