Erbil Governorate has compiled and published a list of the top downstream oil companies in Kurdistan. [Note: This list was originally compiled and published by Marcopolis - Ed.]
Unlike the upstream sector, Kurdistan's refining industry is almost the exclusive preserve of locals, among them KAR Group, one of the region's largest private companies, which operates Kalak Refinery (pictured).
According to the Financial Times:
"In addition to Erbil and the refineries at Baiji, central Iraq, Baghdad and Basrah, there are dozens of backyard, so-called "teapot", refineries. Together they are capable of processing a total of about 790,000b/d of crude, according to the US Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction.
"The surge in Kurdistan's oil consumption is part of a broader trend within Iraq. The country has seen its oil demand rise to more than 700,000 b/d in 2011, up from just 450,000 b/d in 2003, as economic activity improves, according to estimates by the US Department of Energy."
Top downstream oil companies and refineries in the Kurdistan Region:
In 2009, the company's turnover was $1.2 billion, and this increased to approximately $1.5 billion in 2010. The company is involved in the upstream, midstream and downstream sectors. At present, UB Holding is one of the leading private sector companies in Iraq.
Baziyan refinery (Qaiwan Group)
Situated near Kurdistan's second city of Suleimaniya, Baziyan refinery was taken over in 2009 by a local trading company, Qaiwan. It is being upgraded by Ventech to increase its capacity to 34,000 b/d.
Kalak Refinery (Kar Group)
Kalak is the largest refinery in Kurdistan. It now has refining capacity of 100,000 barrels of oil a day, a figure that is set to rise sharply in the coming years. Kalak is expanding fast. Kalak supplies 75 per cent of local demand for products such as high-octane gasoline.
(Picture: KAR Group's Kalak refinery, Erbil)