Politically sanctioned corruption and barriers to reform in Iraq
This paper explores the pernicious effects of politically sanctioned corruption on governance in Iraq.
This type of corruption is more consequential for the coherence of the state, and for its everyday functioning, than petty or personal corruption. It is the key barrier to reform.
The post-2003 ethno-sectarian power-sharing arrangement - designed to ensure communal stability - instead sustained an elite pact in which political parties captured and compromised formal institutions of state.