Jiyad: Iraq Petroleum Sector Chronicle, Volume 4

By Ahmed Mousa Jiyad.

Any opinions expressed are those of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views of Iraq Business News.

The Dedication, Preface, and Introduction of IPSC Project' New Book

Ahmed Mousa Jiyad


My newest book in the Iraq Petroleum Sector Chronicle Project- IPSCP has been released this month; it is volume 4, has a sub-title, Contracts Amendments in the Making and covers the development in 2013 with comparative linkage to previous years.

This contribution comprises to whom the book was dedicated, the "Preface" jointly written by two prominent patriotic and progressive Iraqis and the "Introduction", which it provides an executive summary of the book.

The recent book is dedicated to all my colleagues with whom I worked, at different capacities, between 1975 and July 1988, on many issues, projects, and missions (inside and outside the country) related to the petroleum sector and the Iraqi economy, particularly at: The Council of Ministers, Ministry of Oil' headquarter, INOC and SCOP.



A Guiding Light-tower in the Solitary of a Deserted Path


Fuad Al-Amir and Majid Allawi

 We did not have the opportunity to know closely our dear colleague Ahmed Mousa Jiyad until a group comprising many good patriotic oil experts and professionals stood fast confronting the attempt to promulgate a disastrous oil law in 2007, and we have not been able to meet until now. However, a bond of mutual respect, understanding and continuous contact and communication developed between us while we three follow-up and engage in the national discourse on variety of economic and oil issues.

The most intensive contact and important cooperation between us occurred when Iraq National Oil Company-INOC Law "smuggled" in the last days of the parliament's term on March 14, 2018, and the dubious approval of the President of the Republic was granted after only eleven days on March 25, 2018.

Two days after that approval, dear brother Ahmed Mousa Jiyad, wrote and circulate a "direct appeal against the Iraqi National Oil Company Law" to the Federal High Court, on March 27. He provided detailed analysis showing where INOC Law violates the Constitution and shows that the President's endorsement of it is a violation of his basic duty, according to Article 67, to protect and ensure compliance with the Constitution.

Ahmed' initiative was a source of motivation, mobilization, and awareness on how the seriousness of the negative consequences that law could have on the existence of Iraq; as an entity and a state and could transform all oil-producing and non-oil-producing provinces into mini-states, resembling KR' "mini-state," fighting over resources, provincial borders, transit rights and fees, and even over water. Under a state that would be governed by a company, which owns all Iraq's hydrocarbon, and its resources are managed by an appointed, unelected administration.

His memorandum galvanised efforts and assembled much wider support, was the basis for subsequent moves to crystallize and formalise our position and course of action, immediately after INOC Law was published on the Official Gazette, Al-Waqaai Al-Iraqiya.

Our communication continuous after the law was published, and in light of consultations with him, we decided to file an appeal case before the Federal High Court, challenging the premises of law; because the "public" appeal that Ahmed had previously submitted and circulated widely did not meet the legal procedural requirements for filing a case in terms of powers of attorney, legal representation, and other formalities, which may require many months of direct presence and attendance. His residency, work and commitments outside Iraq prevented him from be in Baghdad for the required period.

However, the most important role in that lawsuit was what Ahmed had played in the accurate formulation of all the articles of the lawsuit list, and the statement on the constitutional articles that were violated by the articles of the National Oil Company Law, in an in-depth legal formulation. The lawsuit statement was completely drafted by him, with the exception of the introductions and formalities necessary to be followed and adhered to in such lawsuit regulations. And he continued to follow up on every session during the course of the lawsuit, which was resulted in a decision by the Federal High Court accepting appeals almost all main articles that were appealed against; certainly, the thorough and well-articulated views on the constitutional and legal appeals that he formulated had the decisive role in accepting those appeals and "demolishing" the miserable INOC Law.

What should be highlighted is the depth, objectivity and diversity of his studies and interventions: he addressed and condemned the positions of successive, collusive governments regarding KRG'   unconstitutional control of oil operations in Iraqi Kurdistan region. Also, his analysis of the State annual budgets, as he wrote on 2019 budget, condemn the "Policy of extortion and negativity of acquiescence", and asserting any payment from the federal government to KRG not only violates state budget law, but also indicates government failure in protecting the national interests. He addressed and uncovered corruption and irregularities in the work of Ministry of Electricity and how the Minister contract with "himself". He conducted and published serious, in-depth and valuable series of economic studies regarding many projects and suggested agreements such as Basra-Aqaba Pipeline, Agreement with TotalEnergies, the SIIP with ExxonMobil, ..., and many more studies and positions on different issues of petroleum policy, contracts, refineries, development of border joint-oilfields among other topics.

Ustath [Professor] Ahmed Mousa Jiyad is an extension and outcome of a generation of patriotic and progressive experts who carried the concerns of Iraq and its oil issues on their shoulders after the fall of the glorious July 1958 Revolution, after it dared to launch the battle for the  liberation of the national oil wealth by enacting Law No. 80 of 1961; the hostile forces mobilized all evil efforts to bring it down.

Great symbols prominent Iraqi experts and intellectuals have taken up the leadership of the oil battle, led by the deceased of Iraq, the great stature Dr. Mohammad Salman Hassan with his lecture that he delivered at the Economists Association and issued a pamphlet entitled "Towards the Nationalization of Iraqi Oil", in which he presented the idea of the gradual nationalization of Iraqi oil. There is another pioneering work presented by Dr. Ibrahim Allawi in his book "Iraqi Oil and National Liberation" in 1967, which has become a reference for every follower of oil issues.

Dear brother Ahmed lived through that generation after his graduation in 1967, and he was among the elite of the progressive youth who gathered around Dr. Mohammad Salman Hassan and coordinate their movements and intellectual activity under that glorious banner.

Now, Ahmed, with exceptional qualities, represents and resembles an extension of all those who preceded him. He has enriched his first academic specialization as a graduate of the Faculty of Economics and Political Science with several specialized academic studies in the most prestigious international, UK and US, universities with a diploma in planning, a master's in development and a master's in law and diplomacy.

Moreover, he enriched the oil library with a series of volumes/books entitled Iraq Petroleum Sector Chronicle-IPSC Project, this fourth volume covers the year 2013. Ahmed' research and publications, particularly IPSC Project, provide the most important documentary reference for Iraqi oil issues.

All that, in addition to his long experience as an employee, chief expert, and negotiator at the Ministry of Oil, INOC, Council of Ministers and Ministry of Trade, explain the depth and width of his analytical approach. Therefore, his treatment of all raised oil issues was distinguished by methodology, professionalism, objectivity, and accurate scientific approach; a spirit of the researcher and analyst of technical, legal and financial factors, economic feasibility, and possible alternatives to the subject he deals with, away from convulsions or constructive and polemical phrases or tendencies.

We mention this to testify how exceptional this unique talent is. And in the highly complex and volatile global conditions in the oil industries and policies, the failure of the competent state agencies, starting with the prime minister, not to benefit from his experiences and consultations is a grave loss and national negligence for which an apology is not sufficient.

He is the sparkling continuity of all generations of Iraqi experts and intellectuals who left and are leaving their marks and giving to their country and to future generations and he becomes a guiding beacon in the solitary of a deserted path.


March 2023


Iraq Petroleum Sector Chronicle Project, Progressing

This fourth book/volume is, mainly, about the development in Iraqi petroleum sector during 2013, but also, it provides the needed continuity by covering the development in previous years that were addressed in the first three volumes in this series of books on Iraq Petroleum Sector Chronicle-IPSC Project.

There is a separate note in this volume outlining IPSC Project, which is one fruition of many decades of constant meticulous research, consultation, documentation, follow up and direct involvement efforts, and of more than six decades since my formal association and engagement with the Ministry of Oil.

The first three volumes/books were published by Lambert Academic Publishing-LAP, this fourth volume is too.

All books have the same main title, Iraq Petroleum Sector Chronicle but with different subtitles, reflecting the major themes that dominate the debate in that particular year/period covered by the related volume.

The first IPSC book has a subtitle, "Grand Opening for Big Push Strategy" and covers the development in the upstream petroleum in Iraq prior to 2011. The subtitle reflects the mood, sentiments, actions, and views that prevailed then both inside and outside the country, expecting Iraq to be a game changer in the international petroleum scene. That was premised on the concluded service contracts pursuant to the bid rounds, particularly the first and the second. The book/volume was published in October 2021 and my dear colleague Tariq Shafiq wrote the Preface.

Signs of powerful restraints and constraints began to emerge and thoughts for revisions were contemplated during 2011. Hence, the subtitle for the second volume reflects that dramatic shift from high expectations originally formulated after concluding the above-mentioned contracts; it was, "A Game Changer, No More". The volume was published in May 2022 and its Preface was written by my dear colleague Dr. Walid Khadduri.

The third book covers 2012, with subtitle "Reality Seldom Coincides with Expectations"; it is in fact a logical continuation or extrapolation of the subtitle for the previous volume. The third book contains many new additions and improvements, especially regarding data and statistics covered in part four. My colleague and twice Minister of Oil, Thamir Al-Ghadhban enriched volume three of the book by writing its Preface.

The current volume comprises the usual four parts, in addition to Preface, Introduction, a brief note on IPSC Project, Table of contents and Abbreviations.

Following the established structure of the previous volumes, Part One contains a selection of my own essays and research work published in 2013. Each of my "Essays..." has its own methodology, structure, assumptions, analysis, discussion and consulted references; information on each essay was provide, when and where it was published and the web-link to access it, if that is permissible by the related websites. This part contains 11 essays.

Part Two of the book comprises views of and positions taken by some selected well-known Iraqi oil professionals, senior government officials and others aiming at presenting a balance of wide spectrum of different, and sometimes opposing, views positions and affiliations; these are presented in a form of own articles, interviews, keynote statements or any other form.

The selected items reflect the richness and diversity of opinion that shaped the discourse among Iraqis at that time and, consequently, enriched the value of this book. Official views, expressed, through detailed interviews and statements, by senior government officials and decision makers reflect the political vision and economic aspiration of the dominant political parties, groups, religious/ politicized individuals and different associations and gatherings of professionals, notably oil experts and professionals inside and outside the country.

This part includes also other articles written or interviews given by non-Iraqi oil professionals, articles, abstracts and extracts from reports, studies and books written or done by international entities, consulting/legal firms, and authors, among others; they were included due to their relevance to Iraq upstream petroleum. There are 22 items in this part two.

Part three, provides much wider global views on the development of the Iraqi petroleum sector, comprises outside foreign and international standpoints and contributions to the debate about Iraq's petroleum and its prospect; a large number of items compiled from many and different external sources includes reports, studies, articles, and media reporting among others, most if not all, were written by non-Iraqis.

This part adds the third perspective of the book; how the outside world looked to Iraqi petroleum matters, what was their preoccupation, how did they understand or fail to understand, analyse, debate the issues, and foresee the implications. Some items provide data and information that are not made available by Iraqi entities through formal channels and thus becomes important source for such information. In total, this part comprises 59 items.

In this volume, Part Four exhibits noticeable addition and improvements, with production of many charts, tables, and introduction of trendlines and regression equations. Data and statistics are vital material evidence and essential for understanding and assessing progress or otherwise in different aspects in petroleum sector.

The part has eight main sections with many sub-sections, 47 tables and 27 charts.

This part provides rather detailed data and analysis not only for 2013 but also covers previous years whenever possible and data are available. A brief review of quantitative and statistical indicators regarding the eight topics are provided hereunder.

This fourth book covers the development of the sector during 2013. It has the subtitle, Contracts Amendments in the Making; the most impacting action and financially rewarding to IOCs.

Click here to download the full analysis in pdf format.

Mr Jiyad is an independent development consultant, scholar and Associate with the former Centre for Global Energy Studies (CGES), London. He was formerly a senior economist with the Iraq National Oil Company and Iraq's Ministry of Oil, Chief Expert for the Council of Ministers, Director at the Ministry of Trade, and International Specialist with UN organizations in Uganda, Sudan and Jordan. He is now based in Norway (Email: mou-jiya(at)online.no, Skype ID: Ahmed Mousa Jiyad). Read more of Mr Jiyad's biography here.

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